South Goa district headquarter is at Margao. South Goa District covers the entire southern part of Goa state. Arabian sea is to the west of district, North Goa district to the North and Uttar Kannada district of Karnataka in the East and South. South Goa is situated between the latitudinal paralles of 15 degree 29' 32" N and 14 degree 53' 57" N and longitudimal parallels of 73degree 46' 21" E and 74 degree 20' 11" E. From noth to south and from east to west the district spans a distance of 86 kms and 40 kms respectively. The total geographical area of the district is 1966 sq kms.
According to Ancient Indian Mythology is said that Goa was reclaimed from the sea. It is believed that Sixth Avatar of Vishnu Sage, Parshuram created the Sahyadri range and struck an arrow into the western seas. The arrow is said to have sent the seas rolling back to create Gomantak or Goa.
It is believed that Aryan migrated to Goa around 2400 BC. Original tribals migrated in hills due to Aryan arrival in this part. It is believed that Sumerian civilization was existed dating back 2000 BC. These people introduced their ideas of all types with the result that the ownership of the land vested in the main village diety. The co-operative farming turned into common holdership or villages who were considered to be founders of the village commune and its administration took a form of oligarchic democrocy. The Aryans of the first wave accepted this type of administration and improved upon it.
Mainly Aryans consisted of Bhojas, Chediyas, Kshatriyas and Brahmins were arrived in Goa. Bhojas ruled over Goa from aobout 4th century AD to 6th century AD. It is believed that Brahmins were migrated to Goa by Parashurama from Kasmir and the banks of the river Sarawati. Kadambas also ruled over Goa, they were originally from Karnataka. They ruled from Chandrapura modern Chnador on the banks of the river Khushavati. Rulers from Vijayanagar Empure also ruled over Goa. Muslim rulers also ruled over Goa. It has also impact on the life of the people. Muslim art and architecutre can be seen in buidlings and mosques in Goa.
Goa was under Protuguese rule for about 450 years. Afonso de Albuqureque, first portuguese attacked Goa and occupied it. Due to Portuguese rule over Goa, here Christian religion spread very fast.
In Goa Hindu, Muslim, Christian religions are found. Here temples, churches and mosques are existed in many numbers. All community festivals are celebrated in this state with an enthusiasm.
Colva: Colva is by far the most popular of South Goa beaches, famous for its white sands and is to South Goa what Calangute is to the North Goa. For those who like to be where the action is Colva is the place in South Goa, with lots of resorts, shops and activity. For those who prefer more tranquil surroundings, there are smaller places to stay at within 20 minutes walking distance on either side of Colva. There are a number of restaurants on either side of the road leading up to the beach and the numerous shacks on the beach provide less variety but equally good quality of food. Colva is only a 20 minute ride by bus from the town of Margao.
Bogmalo: Bogmalo beach is only eight kms from Vasco and four km from the airport at Dabolim. The small beach became famous when the Oberoi Group decided to put up a 5 star hotel here. There are a few shacks on the beach next to the village.
Benaulim: According to legend as described in the Skanda Purana, Vishnu, in his sixth incarnation as Parsurama shot an arrow to mark the limit where Samudra, the Indian Neptune should withdraw. Defeated, Samudra receded when the arrow fell in Bannali (Bann: arrow, ali: village). This is how the village of Banali got its name. It was later corrupted by the Portuguese to Benaulim. Banaulim lies 2 kms away from Colva Beach.
Ever since backpackers started patronising the place, this fishing and rice-farming village with coconut groves and paddy fields, has turned into a tourist haven with small guest houses and souvenir stalls. Most visitors to Benaulim are transient budget travellers from Colva.
The gently shelving sands are increasingly being haunted by hawkers, masseurs and fruit-vendors. Otherwise, Benaulim is a relatively quieter beach than many, friendly and warm. The neighbouring beach of Varca, is more peaceful as tourism has not reared its head enough to change the lifestyle of the locals. There are a few bars and restaurants and basic accommodation is available here.
Palolem: Palolem, 2 km west of Chaudi, is one of Goa's most idyllic beaches. It has a crescent shaped bay lined with swaying coconut palms hemmed by a pair of rocky crags. The white sand beach in an arc is picture perfect.
The village has several cafes and souvenir stalls catering to day-trippers who arrive in droves on sight-seeing tours of the beaches. Despite the commercialisation, Palolem remains a traditional village, where the easy pace of life is dictated by the three daily rounds of todi-tapping.