Rohtas district is one of the districts of Bihar, and Sasaram town is the administrative headquarters of this district. Rohtas district is a part of Patna Division. The distrist has an area of 3850 km², a population of 2,448,762 (2001 census), and a population of 636 persons per km².
Rohtas has an old & interesting history. In pre-historic days the plateau region of the district has been the abode of aboriginals whose chief representatives now are the Bhars, the Cheers and the Oraons . According to some legends the Kherwars were the original settlers in the hilly tracts near Rohtas.The Oraons also claim that they ruled over the area between Rohtas and Patna. The local legend also connects king Sahasrabahu with Sasaram, the headquarter of Rohtas district. It is believed that Sahasrabahu had terrible fight with Saint Parsuram, the legendary Brahmin Protector, as a result of which Sahasrabahu was killed. The term Sahasram is supposed to have been derived from Sahasrabahu and Parsuram. Another legend connects the ROHTAS hill to Rohitashwa, son of Raja Harishchandra, a famous king who was known for his piety and truthfulness.
The District of ROHTAS formed a part of the Magadh Empire since 6th B.C. to 5TH Century A.D. under the pre Mauryans. The minor rock edict of Emperor Ashok at Chandan Sahid near Sasaram confirmed the Mauryans conquests of this district. In the 7th Century A.D. This district came under the control of Harsha rulers of Kannauj.
Sher Shah’s father Hassan Khan Suri was an Afghan adventure, he got the jagir of Sasaram as a reward for his services to Jamal Khan, and the Governor of Province during the latter’s attachment with the king of Jaunpur. But the Afghan Jagirdar was not able to exercise full control over this subject since the allegiance of the people was very lose and the landlords were particularly independent. In 1529 Babar invaded Bihar, Sher Shah who lost opposed him. Babar has left in his memories an interesting account of the place. He mentioned about the superstitions of the Hindu with regard to river Karamnasa and also described how he swam across the river Ganga at Buxar in 1528.
When Babar died , Sher Shah become active again .In 1537 Humayun advanced against him and he seized his fortresses at Chunar and Rohtas Garh. Humayun proceeded to Bengal where he spent six months, while on his return journey to Delhi he suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of the Sher Shah at Causa. This victory secured for Sher Shah the imperial throne of Delhi. “ The rule of Sur dynasty , which Sher Shah founded, was very short lived. Soon the Mughals regions the imperial throne of Dehli. After his assassination, Akbar tried to extend his empire and consolidated it. The district of Rohtas was thus included in the empire”
The next event of importance which shook the District, was the reign of Raja Chait Singh of Banaras, his kingdom included large part of Shahabad and his control extended up to Buxar.He raised the banner of revolt against he English who had a difficult time. At Chunar and Ghazipur, the English troops suffered defeat and the very foundations of the English power in India was shaken. But, ‘is well known fact that Chait Singh lost eventually.
The district had a very uneventful history till we come to 1857 when Kunwar Singh revolted against the British Empire in line with the Mutineers of 1857. Most of the hiroic details of Kunwar Singh is concerned with the present district of Bhojpur. However he mutiny had its impact and produced similar up-rising and incidents here and there. The hilly tracts of the district offered natural escape to the fugitives of the Mutiny. During Independence movement the district had a substantiates contribution to the freedom movement of India. After Independence Rohtas remained a part of the Shahabad District but in 1972 Rohtas became a separate District
AKBARPUR: It is situated at the foot of Kaimur hills 5kms form Rohtas Garh. It is said to name after Mughal ruler Akbar. It is very near to the present block head quarters of Rohtas .It contains the tomb of Malik Wishal Khan, the daroga of Rohtas Garh during the reign of emperor Shahjahan.
Rohtas Garh: It is situated 5 Kms. west of present block headquarter of Rohtas Block in Dehri Subdivision.It is said to be after the name of Rohitashwa the son of Raja Harishchandra Rohitshwa is said to have settled and built a fort here. However some local tribes say that Rohtas means dry land. Rohtas has a big fort. It was taken into possession by Sher Shah in 1538 A.D.It was the headquarter of Akbarpur, victory of the eastern provinces near the fort. There is a MAJAR (Grave) of Mohammedan saint named Sheikh Shah Babal (Pir).
One kilometer north of Rohtas Fort is Bawan Talab known for ancient temples. As the name indicates 52 ponds surrounded the village the good olden days. But there is no trace of them now. There is an ancient temple of Lord Shiva, locally known as the CHAURASAN MANDIR said to have been built by King Harishchandra.
SASARAM: Head quarter of Rohtas District as well as the Sadar Subdivision Sasaram, the municipal town is a place of historical importance.
The grand chort section of the eastern railway & Grand Trunk Road pass through it. There are several monuments nearby town. It is famous for the Tomb of Sher Shah build towards the middle of the sixteenth century. Hexagonal in shape & build of stone. It is the second heighest tomb in India situted in the middle of a big tank. It is a fine specimen of the pathan architecture & attracts tourists. The tomb of Hasan Khan Suri, father of Sher Shah is also located in the town. This tomb is also known as Sukha Roza.
The Ashok inscription at Chand-tan-pir on a hill near SASARAM is also of historical value.
Shergarh: The village is situated 13 kilometers south of chenari. It was a military cantonment during the regime of Sher Shah. It has a ruin of fortress.
Tarachandi: There is a temple of Goddess Tarachandi and small inscription of Pratap Dhawal on the rock close to the temple of Chandi Devi. Hindus in large number assemble to worship the goddess.
Dhurwan Kund & Gupta Dham: These two attractive tourist and religious places it can be developed as beautiful natural sites. These sites situated in the Chenari Block of this District.
Bhaluni Dham: There is a famous temple of Goddess Durga, called “Yakshini Bhagwati “. Here is also an ancient temple of God “Shirac Bhankhandi Mahadevan " and situated 7 Kms east of Dinara Block in Bikramganj Sub Division. Large number of devotees assembled to worship the Goddess for benediction.
Dharklandha: There is a math of a saint “Dariyadas: This great figure is counted in the series of Kasir and Dadu. Probably he is the first saint poet of this district. He wrote many religious books are required in India.