The present Madhepura district had already got the status of subdivision on 09/05/1845 in which there were seven blocks. Saharsa district today was then the revenue circle of Madhepura at that time. When Saharsa became a district on 01/04/1954, Madhepura became its subdivision. Madhepura subdivision which had seven blocks at that time, was given the status of a district on 09/05/1981.On 21/05/83 Uda-kishunganj Block was upgraded and made a subdivision of Madhepura district in the name of Uda-kishunganj. Besides seven old blocks, four new blocks came in to existence in the year 1994. There were Gwalpara, Puraini, Bihariganj and Shankarpur. First three blocks come under uda-kishunganj subdivision and last one is under Madhepura subdivision. Later on two more new blocks were constituted in the name of Ghailar and Gamaharia, under Madhepura subdivision in 1999.
Madhepura district is surrounded by Araria and Supaul district in the north, Khagaria and Bhagalpur district in the south, Purnia district in the east and Saharsa district in the West.
It is situated in the Plains of River Koshi and located in the Northeastern part of Bihar at longitude between 25°. 34 to 26°.07’ and latitude between 86° .19’ to 87°.07’.
So far the Communication is concerned, this district is linked with meter gauge Rail of North Eastern Railway. The district is located on Katihar, Saharsa, Samastipur meter gauge Rail Section. In addition to Rail link it is connected with state H.Q.by road that starts from NH 31 at Maheshkhut and ends at Baijnathpur situated in between Madhepura and Saharsa link road at the distance of 14 KM from Madhepura.
The history of Madhepura is traced back to the reign of Kushan Dynasty of Ancient India. The “Bhant Community” living in Basantpur and Raibhir village under Shankarpur block are the descendents of the Kushan Dynasty.
Madhepura was a part of Maurya Dynasty, this fact is asserted by the Mauryan pillar at Uda-kishunganj. A mosque of the time of Akbar is still present in Sarsandi village under Uda-Kishunganj p.s. Which shows its historical importance.
Singheshwarsthan has the religious significance since ancient time as this land was the meditation place of the great Rishi, Shringi. Hence, this place is considered to be the most pious for the Hindus.
Sikander Sah had also visited the district, which is evident from the coins discovered from Sahugarh village.