Kaimur district has 14 police stations and covers an area of about 340447 Hectares, Geographically, the district can be divided into two parts viz. (i) Hilly area and (ii) Plain area. The hilly area comprises of Kaimur plateau. The plain area on the western side is flanked by the rivers The Karmanasha and the Durgawati. The Kudra river lies on it eastern side. The district of Buxar of Bihar State and the district of Ghazipur of U.P. State bound it on the North. On the south is the district of Garhwa of Jharkhand State and on the West is the district of Chandauli and Mirjapur of the U.P. State. On the East is district of Rohtas of Bihar State. The district has close linkage with the history of Shahabad, which was its parent district also. The old district of Shahabad had four subdivisions of which Bhabua was one. The present district of Kaimur has been formed from the whole of this Bhabua subdivision.
The district of Kaimur came into existence in the year 1991, carved out of the erstwhile Rohtas district. The Present district of Kaimur consists of two Subdivisions, viz Bhabua and Mohania. The district has 11 CD Blocks and 1 town (Census Town) with district headquarters at Bhabua.
The present district of Kaimur comprises of the whole area of Bhabua Subdivision of the old Shahabad district. The district may be divided into plain and plateau regions. The Plain area consists of fertile alluvial lands, which become rocky as one proceeds southwards. As one approaches the Kaimur foothills, the soil becomes stony and poor in fertility. The Kaimur plateau is an undulated tableland having thin shrubby jungles spreading about 1200 sq. Kms.
Kaimur has an old and interesting history. In pre-historic days the plateau region of the district has been the abode of the aboriginals whose chief representatives now are the Bhars, the Cheros and the Savers. According to some legends, the Kharwars were the original settlers in the hilly tracts of Rohtas. The Ovaons also claim that they ruled over the stretch falling between Rohtas and Patna. One local legend also connects Sasaram the present headquarters of Rohtas with king Sahasrarjun, who was killed by Saint Parshuram in a fight.
The district of Kaimur formed part of the mighty Magadh Empire from 6th century B.C. to 5th century A.D., under the Mauryan and Gupta rulers of Magadh. In the 7th century A.D., this district came under the control of Harshawardhan, the ruler of Kannouj. An inscription in the Mundeshwari temple near Bhabua refers to the king Udaysena asthe ruling chief of the area. The Seal of king Sasanka of Guada in Bengal is inscribed at Rohtasgarh in the district of Rohtas. The famous Chinese pilgrim Huen- tang, who journeyed through the country in the 7th century A.D., passed through Arrah, the headquarters of the old Shahabad district through this region of newly formed Kaimur district. The area of the district successively came under the rulers of Shail dynasty of central India and Pal dynasty ofBengal. According to C. Mark, a historian, the first ruler of Pal dynasty controlled this region. Later on Chandauli controlled Varanasi-Chandawali and also the Kaimur district in the 12th century, as confirmed by the Tarachandi inscription near Sasaram. After the fall of the Guptas the district in all probability relapsed into the hands of the aboriginal tribes and came under the control of petty chieftains. The Rajputs who came from Ujjain, and the province of Mallwa had a series of conflicts with the aboriginals and it took them many hundred years to subdue the aboriginal completely. The Census report of 1961 describes that when Bakhtiar Khiliji attacked Bihar in 1193 A.D., he found Shahabad in the hands of petty Rajput chiefs often fighting among themselves. They were not united and strong enough to offer powerful resistance to the Muslim invaders. Hence Bakhtiyar Khiliji had an easy victory over them and the district soon became a part of his kingdom. Later it was annexed, along with the rest of Bihar, to the kingdom of Jaunpur. A hundred year later, it passed under the direct control of the Muslim empire of Delhi.
Sher Shah's father, Hassan Khan Sur, got the Jagir of Sasaram. Later Baler invaded the area in 1529 and has mentioned Hindu superstitions about river Karmanasha. In 1537 the old Shahabad district witnessed advancement of Humayun and his subsequent conflict with Sher Shah at Chausa. Later the district of Shahabad (which includes present Kaimur district also) was included in Akbar's empire.
In 1758, Shah Alam during his conflict with Lord Clive of East India Company, went to Durgawati and with the help of local Zamindar Pahalwan Singh crossed the Karmanasha River. Subsequently Pahalwan Singh succumbed to comply and live on the latter's terms. In 1764, the old Shahabad district witnessed conflict for supremacy and the English became absolute masters of the area after defeating Siraj-ud-daula in the battle of Buxar. Again the area was shaken by the rebellion of Raja Chait Singh of Banaras but eventually the English succeeded in suppressing the revolt.
Lastly the historic 1857 mutiny under command of Kunwar Singh had its impact in the district. As a result, during the independence movement the district had a substantial contribution to the freedom of India. Much after independence in the year 1972 Rohtas district was formed out of the old Shahabad district and in the year 1991. The present Kaimur district was formed out of the Rohtas district.
Adhaura: It is situated at a height of 2000 feet from the sea level on Kaimur plateau at a Distance of 58 Kms from Bhabua. Hills and surrounding forest make it an ideal tourist spot.
Baidyanath: village is situated at 9 kms south of Ramgarh block headquarters. A Shiva temple built by the late Pratihar dynasty is located here. Coins and valuables of historical importance have been unearthed here.
Bhabua: Bhabua is the headquarters of Kaimur district. This municipal town lies 14 Km south of G. T. Road connected by a road to be reached from Bhabua Road Railway station on Grand Chord Railway line.
Bhagwanpur: Bhagwanpur is situated 11 Km south of Bhabua near the Kaimur hills. It is said to have been the seat of power of Kumar Chandrasen Saran Singh, who claimed his descent from Paras. It was confiscated by Sher Shah from Raja Shaliwahan but later restored to his successor during the reign of Akbar.
Chainpur: Situated 11 Km west of Bhabua headquarters it is credited with a great mausoleum of Bakhtiar Khan, who is said to have married the daughter of Sher Shah. The fort at Chainpur is a structure of Suri or Akbar period. The Hindu shrine of "Harsu Brahm" is famous in the locality. It is said that Kanyalkubya priest of Raja Shaliwahan, named Harshu Pandey, ended his life in protest against demolition of his house but during his cremation was seen standing at the cremation site at Varanasi.
Chorghatia: Chorghatia village in Adhaura block is an excellent beauty spot with a waterfall amidst beautiful scenery.
Durauli: Durauli village situated 8 Km North -East of Ramgarh contains two old temples built by the Cheros.
Ramgarh: Ramgarh village in the Bhagwanpur block in Bhabua Subdivision contains the famous Mundeshwari temple, built on a hilltop at a height of about 600 feet. Inscriptions of archeological importance found here describe the temple to be old enough to have been built around the year 635 A.D.