Presently Darbhanga district is having the total geographical area of 2279 sq. km. and population of 2507815 according to 1991 census. It is situated between longitude 85 degree 45’- 86 degree 25’ East and latitude 25 degree 53’ - 26 degree 27’ North and is bounded on the north by Madhubani district, on the south by Samastipur district, on the east by Saharsa district and on the west by Sitamarhi and Muzaffarpur districts.
Darbhanga is the Divisional Headquarter. The division comprises the three district, namely Darbhanga, Madhubani and Samastipur. The district comprises of three civil Sub-divisions, 18 Blocks, 329 Panchayats, 1269 villages & 23 Police Stations. There is a municipal corporation having 37 wards in the urban area.
The history of Darbhanga dates back to the Ramayana and Mahabharata periods. According to the Vedic sources, the Videhas of Aryan stock first migrated to the area from the banks of Saraswati in Punjab. They were guided to the east of Sadanira (Gandak river) by Agni, the God of Fire. Settlements were established and, thus, flourished the kingdom of Videhas-the Selfless. In course of time Videhas came to be ruled by a line of kings called Janaks. In this line of kings there was a very famous king named Mithi. To commemorate his greatness the territory was named as MITHILA. Another famous king was Janak Sirdhwaja, father of Sita. The legends speak of various learned men patronized by Janak Sirdhwaja, who himself was an erudite scholar. Among them prominent were Yagyavalkya, who codified the Hindu law in his Yagyavalkya Smriti and Gautam, who had various valuable philosophical treatises to his credit. King Janak was himself a great philosopher and his ideas have been eternally enshrined in the Upanishads.
Traditions also speak of Kapil Muni's relationship with this area that propounded the Sankhya philosophy. Association of this area with Pandavas is also evident by the belief that they stayed here during their period of exile.
The learned men like Vidyapati, Kumaril Bhatt, Mandan Mishra, Nagarjun, Vibhuti Bhushan Bandopadhya and Vidushi Bhariti belonged to this reason.
The name of the district has been derived from its head quarter and principal town, which is said to have been founded by Darbhangi Khan. It is also said that the name Darbhanga was derived from Dwar-Banga or Dar-e-Bang meaning "THE GATEWAY TO BENGAL".
Darbhanga is one of the important districts of North Bihar situated in the very heart of Mithilanchal - the fertile, alluvial plains of North India. Under the British rule, Darbhanga was a part of Sarkar Tirhut upto 1875, when it was constituted into a separate district. The sub-divisions of the then district Darbhanga were created as earlier as Darbhanga Sadar in 1845, Madhubani in 1846 and Samastipur in 1867. Darbhanga was part of Patna Division till 1908, when the separate Tirhut Division was carved out. Darbhanga became the Divisional headquarters in 1972 when all its three sub-divisions got the status of separate districts. Thus the present Darbhanga district took shape.
Ahilya Asthan: It is famous historical temple, situated about 3 Kms. South of Kamtaul Railway Station in Jale Block. This place is known as Ahilya gram. There is a well known in the Ramayan about Ahilya. According to Ramayan when Lord Ram was his way to Janakpur his feet touched a stone and it turned into a woman who was non-else but Ahilya. Her husband Gautam Rishi cursed the Ahilya to fun into stone. The temple is dedicated to Ahalya, wife of Gautam Rishi. Large fairs are held every year on the occasion of Ramnavami in the Hindi month of Chaitra and Vivah Panchami in Agrahayan. There are various other temples and mosques in the village.
Brahmpur: The village is situated about 8 kms. away from Kamtaul and 19 kms. south east of Jogiara. The village is noted for the Gautam Kund and a temple of Gautam Rishi, which are located very close to it. According to the Puranic tradition Lord Brahma appeared before Gautam Rishi at this place after the chastity of his wife, Lord Indra and Chandrama had violated Ahalya. The village derives its name from this occurrence. In regard to the Gautam Kund, it is believed that God Brahma himself created the tank by piercing the earth with seven arrows, so that Gautam might not have to travel a long distance for bathing in the Ganga. Kamtaul. The village is a rail head in Jale block. The village has a Khadi Gamodyaog centre and a Khadi store. It is the rail head for visitors to Ahalyasthan and Gautamsthan.
Chhaprar: The village is situated in Bahadurpur block, at a distance of about 10 Kms. from District Headquarter. It has a temple of Lord Mahadeva on the bank of the Kamla River around which fairs are held on the occasion of Kartik and Maghi Purnima. Dekulldham. The village falls in Biraul block and is noted for is large temple of Lord Shiva. Devotees congregate here every Sunday. A large annual fair is held on the occasion of Shivaratri.
Kusheshwar-Asthan: It is an important religious place, situated about 16 Kms. east of Singhia and 22 Kms. northeast of Hasanpur Road railway station on the Samastipur, Khagaria Branch line of North Eastern Railway. It is noted for the temple of Lord Shiva known as Kusheshwarasthan. Pligrims visit this place all the year round for worship. The origin of this temple is traced to the epic period.
The water logged fourteen villages of Kuseshwarasthan block covering an area of 7019 acres and 75 decimals, due to their greater ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological and natural importance has already been declared as Kuseshwarasthan Bird Sanctuary under Wild Life Protection Act 1972 (as amended upto 1991). The following table shows the names and status of some important migratory birds seen in Kusheshwarasthan Bird Santuary and their native countries.
Mahinam-Mahadeo-sthan: It is temple of Lord Shiva situated at a distance of about 5 Kms. from the Darbhanga-Biraul pucca road. Large annual fairs are held here on the occasion of Kartik and Maghi Purnima.
Makranda: Situated about 5 Kms. south of Manigachhi railway station, the village is known for its old temple called Baneshwaristhan.
Newri: The village likes about 13 Kms. west of the block head quarters at Biraul and contains the remains of an ancient fortress associated with Raja Lorick.
Nawadah Durga-sthan: It is famous temple of Goddess Durga Located on the Majkora Nawadah Road. The place is visited by hundreds of devotee's everyday. The Dussehra festival is celebrated here with great enthusiasm.
Raghopur: The village is situated about 5 Kms. south of Sakri railway station. It is noted for its earthen mound, known as Sheosingh-garh, which is believed to cover the ruins of a building, built by Raja Shiva Singh.
Shyama Temple: Shyama Temple is just one KM west of Darbhanga Railway Station. It is situated in the picturesque and peerless Lalit Narayan Mithila University. In fact it is private graveyard of Darbhanga Raj Royal family and temples have been build upon the graveyard of the ancestors of the Royal family. Shyama Temple is one of them. It was built in 1933. A huge statue of Goddess Kali is enshrined in this temple. This temple is famous not only for its grand our beauty and lively men but also for the faith that people here get there in desire fulfilled if they worship with holy heart.
Sati Asthan: Sati Asthan is situated in the famous graveyard of Subhankarpur, which is about one km west of Darbhanga Maharaji bridge. Maharaj Rameshwar Singh who was also a great Tantrik used to visit here daily in mid night for his Tantra Sidhi. Late Pandit Harinandan Mishra father of Late Lalit Narayan Mishra, Ex, Railway Minister, Government of India, also held in this premises. Now a days people use to visit this place on every Monday and Friday.
Manokamna Temple: Manokamana Temple is situated in the University Campus just beside Nargauna Palace. This temple has constructed with the Marvel. In fact it is a Hanuman temple where a little but most beautiful statue of Hanuman is build of marvel. A lot of crowd came to visit this place every day. Malechchhed Mardini temple is one km south west of Darbhanga Railway station. It is temple of the Godden who destroy the faints. This temple is of utmost importance for Shakti people.
Kankali Temple: Kankali temple is two km north west of Darbhanga Railway station in the premises of Qila of Darbhanga Mahraj. This temple is of utmost importance for Shakti people.
Kaitholic Church: It was old type of Baungla Church established in 1891 where training is to given to Christen Pandit.. It is just situated one km north form the Darbhanga Railway Station. This building was demolished in the earthquake of 1897 and later on it was constructed. The pray was started in this building from 25 December 1991. The name of this church is Holy rosary Church. A lot of crowds were assembled on every Friday. Here Christmas festival is organized between Dec 25-31 and Anand Mela is organized on October 7 on each and every year. In the front of Church a most attractive symbol of Isamashi is also situated.
Bhikha Salami Majar: It is situated at one km southeast from Darbhanga Railway station on the bank of Gangasagar pond. A fair is to be organized between 12th and 16th day during the Ramzan.
Masjid at Darbhanga Tower: It is situated at two km west from the Darbhanga Railway Station and just neat at Darbhanga Tower. It is the most attractive and religious place for the Islam religion. A crowd people are assembled on every Friday for pray their Namaj.
The Mazar of Makhdoom Baba It is situated at two km northwest from Darbhanga Railway Station and just between the both universities. It is the very popular secularism place. Here daily people from Islam religion as well as Hindu religion assemble for offering their prayers.
Maharaja Laxmiswar Singh Museum: Maharaja Laxmiswar Singh Museum was established on 16th September 1977. It is situated just west south of Darbhanga Railway Station. This Museum can be visited every day except Monday. Its opening and closing time is 10.00 AM and r.30 PM respectively. There is no entry fee. Royal family of Darbhanga is well known for its love and affection with art and culture. Prince Subheshwar Singh gifted the invaluable and immemorial items and Durlabh Kalakritiya in order to establish this museum. The then District Magistrate of Darbhanga Shree Ramashankar Tiwari had also played an important role in the establishment of this museum. This unique museum is situated on the eastern bank of Mansarover Lake.
Chandradhari Museum, Darbhanga: This museum was established on 7 December 1957 on the north bank of Mansarowar Lake. Late Chandradhari Singh of Ranti Dyordhi (Madhubani) donated all the artifact and other rare objects. It was shifted in double story building in 1974. There is no entry fee for visiting the Museum. It remains open for public on everyday except Monday. On the basis of arrangement and materials of the Museum it can be devided into eleven type of Halls.