Hailakandi was one of the oldest subdivision is the state of Assam. It was constituted as a civil subdivision on 1st June 1869. Subsequently, it was upgraded to district in 1989. It has an area of 1326.10 square km. Out of this, more than 50% is reserve forest. There are total of two reserve forests in Hailakandi district viz. Inner line reserve forest and Katakhal reserve forest. The district has got inter-state border with Mizoram on its south having a length of 76 km besides inter district border on other sides with Karimganj and Cachar districts. As per 2001 census, it has a population of 542978. It comprises of two notified towns viz. Hailakandi (district headquarters) and Lala and one industrial town ship viz. Panchgram. A Municipal Board governs Hailakandi town & a town Committee governs Lala. It has five development blocks viz. Algapur, Hailakandi, Lala, Katlicherra & South Hailakandi development Block. There is a Mahkuma Parishad named Hailakandi Mahkuma Parishad covering these 5 Development Blocks. There are total of 62 Nos. of Gaon Panchayat under these five blocks. The district is divided into four revenue circles comprising of a total of 393 villages (including 27 forest villages). Nearly half the district consists of forests. Out of the remaining half, 33.2% is under cultivation. Rice is the main crop. District has got 17 tea gardens. The District has 4 Police stations, 2 Police out post, 2 Colleges, 43 H/E, H/School, 247 ME/ MV Schools and 937 LP schools.
As per 2001 Census, over all literacy rate is 59.80. The figure for Males is 68.47% and for females, it is 50.64 %. The main language of the District is Bengali.
In the organized sector, Tea is the main Industry of the District. It has 17 Tea estates with 5570.38 hectares under Tea plantation employing more than 1,30,642 persons as per 1991 Census. Production of Tea was 87.62 Metric ton. The Hindustan paper Mill Panchgram comes to the second place where large number of people get employment opportunities in the district. The pre dominant income generating activity for the district is through agricultural sector and its allied enterprises.
MUSLIMs, KOCH RAJBONGSHIs, YOGIs(Nath), GOALs(Ghose), HIRAs, SUTRADHARs and other make up the rest. As per 2001 census , the total population ( projected) of the district is 8,22,306 ( 4,20,707 -- Male , 4,01,599 -- Female). The density of population is 451 per sq. km. against the state average of 340 per sq. km. Out of the total population of the district , approximately 1,20,000 belong to ST and about 40,000 to the SC communities (as per 1991 census). The disrtict is the home of large number of different communities. There are RABHAs, BODOs, GAROs, Indeginious MUSLIMs , Immigrant population and total of (1991 census) 6,68,168 , only 2,38,423 could read and write. The percentage of literate being 58.56% (2001 census) of the District.