The total area of Golaghat district is 3502 sq. km. and lies 100 meter above mean sea level. It is bounded by the river Brahmaputra on the North; state of Nagaland on the South; district Jorhat on the East and Karbi Anglong and Nagaon district on the West. It is situated between 26.0º to 27.1º latitudes and 93.0º to 94.18º longitudes.
Dhansiri is the main river, which originates from 'Laisang peak' of Nagaland. It flows through a distance of 352 km from south to north before joining the Brahmaputra.Its catchment area is 1220 sq. km. Doyang, Nambor, Doigrung and Kalioni are the four rivulets of Dhansiri. Doyang originates from 'Maw' of Nagaland and joins with Dhansiri at the South point of Golaghat town.The other rivulets originate from Karbi-Anglong and flow in a West to East direction. The river Kakodonga marks the border of Golaghat and Jorhat districts. It also originates in Nagaland and flows in a South–North direction
The name Golaghat ( 'Gola' which means shop and 'Ghat' meaning the landing point of river ferry ) originated from the shops established by the 'Marwari' businessmen during mid part of 20th century AD at the bank of river Dhansiri near present Golaghat town.
Stone inscription of Nagajari Khanikar gaon of Sarupathar, dating back to the 5th century, reveals that there was an independent kingdom in Doyang - Dhansiri valley and relics of ramparts, brick structures, temples, tanks etc. discovered in these area confirms the presence of a kingdom during 9th and 10th century.
The Doyang – Dhansiri valley came under the rule of Ahom's during 16th century. Prior to that, this part was ruled by the Kacharis known as Herombial. During Ahom rule this area was under 'Morongi – Khowa Gohain', an administrative officer.
After British took possession of Assam , Doyang – Dhansiri valley was included under the newly formed Golaghat subdivision of Sibsagar District in 1846. Later, Golaghat was elevated to the position of a full-fledged district of Assam on 15th of August 1987.
Kaziranga National Park: is situated on the southern bank of the Brahmaputra river. Established in 1908 as a game reserve, it became a national park in 1974 and is inscribed on the IUCN list of World Natural Heritage Site in 1985. It has an area of 430 sq. km. and lies between the Brahmaputra river and the Karbi Anglong hills. Much of the park is marshland interspersed with large water bodies, patches of elephant grass, scattered trees and bushes. Kaziranga's wildlife include the great Indian one-horned Rhinoceros, tiger, leopard, elephant, wild pig, hog deer, swamp deer, buffalo and other water fowl. Many migratory birds visit Kaziranga in the winter season.
For viewing wildlife in the swamp land, there are several watch towers. Elephant and jeep rides are also available. To stay in Kaziranga, there are several government and private guest houses at Kohora having single, double and dormitory accommodation facilities. The park usually remains closed for visitors from May to October. The best period to visit is from December to March.
Garampani: It is a hot water spring inside the Nambar Reserve Forest, about 18 Km South of Golaghat town; only about 50 M. from the NH 39 on the way to Dimapur in Nagaland. One can visit it by hiring a taxi from Golaghat town or by public buses plying on the Golaghat Dimapur route. During winter season lucky visitors may get to see herds of wild elephants grazing by the side of the highway as NH 39 passes through the thickest portion of Nambar Forest.
Neghereting Shiva Mandir: Perched on a hill top, it is an ancient Shiva temple built by Ahom kings. It is surrounded by lush green tea gardens and is a popular picnic spot. From the NH 37, it is only about 1 and 1/2 Km to the north. From Golaghat town, it is about 30 Kms and from Jorhat town it is about 32 Kms. Neghereting temple is also the home of hundreds of monkeys.
Deopahar Ruins, Numaligarh: Why is that ruins are always so much more appealing than restorations ? Deopahar is an example. Scattered on the hill top are ruins of an ancient temple with statues lying shattered and greenery sprouting from the heads of others. The climb to the top of the hill is exhausting, especially on a hot day, but the view from the top spanning across Numaligarh Tea Estate and nearby Karbi Anglong hills and forests is simply divine. Deoparbat is situated just by the side of road, about only 5 Kms. from Numaligarh Tinali on NH 37, from where the N.H. 39 leading to Dimapur starts.
Uncle Robin's Children Museum: The museum is located on the main road in Golaghat town and within the residence of Dr Robin Banerjee, a naturalist of International repute. The museum is full of dolls, artifacts, mementos, movies and other personal collections of Dr Banerjee's lifetime. There are 587 dolls and 262 other show pieces. They have mostly been presented by admirers and children during his many trips to abroad and within the country as well.
GOLAGHAT BAPTIST CHURCH: Golaghat Baptist Church, one of the oldest and biggest Baptist Churches in Assam, which celebrated its Centenary Jubilee in 1999, came into being in December 1898. The pioneering man in this Great Venture was Dr. O. L. Swanson, a missionary from America, who had come to Assam in 1893 along with his wife. Dr. Swanson was assisted by a number of local people.