East Siang district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in India. Deriving its name from the Mighty Siang River, the District is the home of the Adi tribe, and is a land of eternal beauty. Often called as the 'gateway to Arunachal Pradesh' the place is worth a visit to have rendezvous with mother Nature in her purest form.
The East Siang District is a wild mountainous area and presents a remarkable topographical variety. The District has an area of 4005 sq.km. and is lying approximately between 27º 43' and 29º20' North latitudes and 94º 42' and 95º 35' East latitudes
The East Siang District is mostly populated by the Adi tribe which comprise of a large number of tribal groups and can be divided into various subgroups such as the Minyongs, Padams, Shimongs, Milangs, Pasis, Karkos, Ashings, Pangis, Tangmas and Boris. Taken as a whole, the Adis belong to the Astro-Mongolide race, are good looking, sturdy and vigorous. According to Griession's linguistic classification, the language spoken in East Siang District are put together under the North-Assam group of the Tibeto-Burmese group. There are various theories regarding the original home of the Adis; however it seems probable that they came to their present habitat from the north, i.e., Tibet. River Siang had a major role in determining the route of migration of most of the Adi clans. However, the exact location of their original home in Tibet or beyond that is still to be ascertained
The society in East Siang, like most parts of the state, is organized on the basis of clan and village and the social relationships are determined on the basis of kinship or locality. The family, called rutum, is the smallest social unit. The society is basically patrilineal and patriarchal and the sons inherit the property. One outstanding feature of the Adi society that sets it aside from the mainland is the absence of the caste system. Of course, there are some social distinctions, but all people eat together on social occasion and take their part in social councils. Any mention of the Adi community of the district will not be complete without giving a brief account of the system of local-self government called Kebang. These village councils are time-honored socio-political institutions deriving their authority from tradition. They function as village governments expressing the will and power of the members of the society. The functions of these Kebangs are three- fold - judicial, administrative and developmental.
Pasighat town, the headquarter of the East Siang District, is situated at an altitude of 155 metres above main sea level and is the oldest town in Arunachal Pradesh - established in 1911 A.D. A political Officer was appointed in that year with a view to help the natives of the area to come down to the plains of Assam for trade and commerce. It would not be wrong to say, therefore, that the people of East Siang District were the first natives of the state to come in contact with the mainstream; and, it is therefore that this district is called as `the gateway to Arunachal Pradesh' The mighty Siang riveris the life-line of the East Siang District and in Pasighat, it calms down before entering Assam south of Pasighat. The town covers an area of 4005 sq.kms. and supports a population of nearly eighty thousand persons
KEKAR MONYING:, a mountain cliff near Rottung is an important historical place because it was here that the Adi put up a strong resistance against the British in 1911. The war was a part of a punitive expedition undertaken by the British for murdering Noel Williamson, a political officer in the previous year by Matmur Jamoh, a native of Yagrung village.
Komsing, a village on the left bank of the Siang is the place of Williamson's murder. A stone epitaph bearing the name of Noel. Williamson still lies near the Siang. GOMSI, a cultivation area near Rani village is another place of historical importance. In June'96 a team of archaeologists led by Shri T. Tada, Deputy Director, Archaeology of the Research Department conducted a trial excavation and survey in the site. They have found apart from broken pieces of different evidence of glorious past culture of early medieval period (probably Pre-Ahom).
The site has a big rectangular Canal measuring 3.5 meters wide and a pond measuring 38x36 mts. in the site. A mound has been unearthed inside the Canal area from where 13 different sizes of bricks have been found from it's brick wall.
Further excavation and extensive study is required to arrive at a definite idea about the 11.5 acres big settlement area.
The Daying Ering Wild Life Sanctury is located at a distance of 13 kms. from Pasighat and is one of the few sancturies located on an island. One has to cruise through River Siangby country boat to reach the place. During September - February, a variety of migratory birds like cranes, wild-ducks, storks, water-fowlsand hornbils come here from far-off places making it a paradise for the bird watchers. Deers, wild elephants, buffaloes and smaller predators are also abundent. The lucky visitors may also have a glimpse of tiger.
Pangin is situated at a distance of about 60 kms. from Pasighat, and connected by road, it atands at a point where River Siyom meets River Siang and presents a rare sight. The blue waters of Siom meet the green Sinag and the beauty of the site is to be seen to be believed.
Besides above, the district is endowed with some exquisite scenic locations particularly on both sides of the Siang. There are also a number of rare plants and herbs which are of medicinal importance. Botanists amd Zoologists can have ample scope for study of the rich plant and wild-life resources.
The locals still maintain their traditional Socio-cultural practices and observe different festival like Mopin, Solung, Unying-Aran, Etor, Pime, Ali-Aye Ligang etc. They use various colourful costumes and perform dances like Ponung, Delong, Gumrak Soman, Yakjong, Tapu and various other folk dances. They can be of additional aspects of interest specially for sociologists, anthropologists and other culture tourists.
Other places of interest are Yambung, Boleng, Ranaghat at Pasighat, Rottung, Ayeng village on the left bank of the Siang, Balek, J.N. College, Craft centre, Pasighat and District Museum run by Research Department.