Krishna

Krishna district was one of the oldest British administrated areas of Andhra Pradesh. It was formerly called Masulapatnam district and in 1859 when the then Guntur district was abolished, certain taluks thereof were added to this district which was renamed as Krishna district, after the mighty river Krishna. The main hill range of the district known as Kondapalli runs between Nandigama and Vijayawada with a length of about 24 Kms. The other impart hills are Jammalavoidurgam, Mogalrajapuram and Indrakiladri hills. On the Indrakiladri hills at Vijayawada stands the famous temple of Kanakadurga. The chief rivers of the district are the Krishna (length 1,280 kms) Muniyeru (Muneru), the Tammileru and Budameru. Krishna river debouches in to the Bay of Bengal at Hamsala Divi and Nachugunta in this district. The district contains small hillstreams viz., Jayanthi, Kattaleru, Ippalavagu, Upputeru, Telleru, Ballaleru, Nadimeyeru.

HISTORY

Krishna District with its District Headquarters at Machilipatnam is the coastal district of Andhra Pradesh. It was formerly called as Machlipatnam District. Later it was renamed as Krishna District after the holy river Krishna, by adding certain Taluks of the abolished Guntur District in 1859. Again in 1925 Krishna District was further divided into Krishna and West Godavari Districts. Further there are no changes in its jurisdiction except some minor changes (in Divi Taluk and Munagala paragana)

PALLAVAS: (250 AD - 340 AD): Siva skanda Varma, the maker of Pallava dynastry and a great conqueror as the copper plate grants at Mydavolu ( Guntur district). The Pallava kingdom spread over from Krishna river to Tungabhadra, including Amaravati in the East, Bellary in the West and Kancheepuram in the South . The capital cities were Venginagar near Ellore ( presently Eluru) and at Pithapuram, both in Vengidesa.

BRUHITPALAYANAS: They were the contemporaries Pallavas and ruled the district with Koduru as their Capital.

VISHNU KUNDINAS: They ruled during 5th Century AD. They excavated cave temples at Mogalrajapuram and Undavalli etc.

EASTERN CHALUKYAS ( 615 AD – 1070 AD): Pulakesin II of Western Chalukyas got from the hands of Vishnukundinies, entire Andhra country under his control in about 615 AD and appointed his younger brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the Viceroy ( Samanta raju ) for newly conquered possessions. The Eastern Chalukyas were credited with the excavations of the cave temple at Undavalli and rock cut shrines and Shiva temples.

CHOLAS: Rajarajanaredra S/o Vimaladitya was the greatest king among the Cholas. He fixed his capital at Rajahmundry and it was during his reign that Nannayya Bhattu translated the Mahabharata into Telugu.




KAKATIYAS: They ruled up to 1323 AD. The greatest kings among the Kakatiyas are Prataparudra – 1, Rudrama Devi, Prataparudra – 2. In 1323 Prataparudra –2 was captivated by Alla-Ud-din. This was the first appearance of Muslims in the Deccan.

REDDIS: On the downfall of Pratapa Rudra, the eldest son of Pulaya Vema Reddi found himself independent and established himself in the hill fort of Kondavedu. He also possessed himself of the fortress of Bellamkonda, Vinukonda and Nagarjuna konda in the Palanad. The Kondavidu Reddis' were great patrons of Telugu literature. The poet Srinadha and his brother-in –law Bammera Pothana flourished at his court. The ruins of fortresses at Kondavidu, Ballamkonda and Kondapalli are still to be seen.

GAJAPATHIS: They extended the power over Krishna district. Kapileswara Gajapathi is preserved by the village Kapileswarapuram now in Pamidimukkala mandal. He was succeeded by Vidyadhara Gajapathi who built Vidyadharapuram and constructed a reservoir at Kondaplli.

VIJAYANAGARA EMPIRE: About 1516 Krishna Devaraya the great king of Vijayanagar conquered the whole of this country and left inscriptions to announce his victories. Krishna Devaraya patternised Tenali Ramalinga who was one of the ASTHA DIGGAJAS.

QUTAB SHAHIS: In 1512, the Kingdom of Golconda or Hyderabad was founded by one Sultan Quli Qutub Shah. The Kingdom of Golconda included this district within its limits. Abu-l-Hussain Shah was the last of Qutab Shahi dynasty known as Tanisha. He had two ministers, both Brahmins, named Akkanna and Madanna. For some reasons they fixed their office at Vijayawada. Popular tradition attributed this preference of Vijayawada to the devotion of the two ministers to the goddess Kanaka Durga.

NIZAMS: The Emperor Aurangazeb included this district in the province of Golconda, which remained under Asaf jah who was appointed as Subedar or Viceroy of the Deccan in 1713 with the tittle of Nizam-ul-Mulk. The province of Golconda comprised five Nawabs’ charges viz. Arcot, Cuddapah, Kurnool, Rajahmundry and Chicacole (Srikakulam). The Nawab of Rajahmundry ruled the country induced in the Krishna District.

THE ENGLISH: In 1611 the English founded their settlement at Masulipatnam which continued to be their headquarters until they were finally removed to Madras in 1641. The settlements of Dutch and French followed the English at Masulipatnam. Upon the death of the old Nizam-ul-Mulk in June 1748 his heirs strove for the succession with the support of the English and the French. When Nizam Ali Khan was proclaimed ruler of Golconda in 1761 the British secured at first the divisions of Masulipatnam, Nizampatnam and part of Kondaveedu and later the entire Circars. At first the district was administered by a chief and council at Masulipatnam but in 1794 Collectors, directly responsible to the Board of Revenue, were appointed at Masulipatnam.