Indian History Time Line

5000 BC The Kurgan culture in the steppes west of the Ural Mountains (Indo-Aryans)
3120 BC Mythical Indian war of the Mahabarata
3000 BC The proto-indo-european language develops in Central Asia
3000 BC Dravidian speaking people develop the civilization of the Indus Valley
2500 BC The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus Valley
2000 BC The civilization of the Indus Valley declines
2000 BC The Kurgan culture spreads to eastern Europe and northern Iran
1700 BC Indo-Iranians separate from the other Indo-European tribes and migrate eastward to settle in Iran
1600 BC Indo-Aryans invade India from the west and expel the Dravidians
1500 BC Religious texts are written in Vedic, an Indo-European language
1100 BC The Indo-Aryans use iron tools
1000 BC The Rig-Veda are composed
900 BC Indo-Aryans discover iron and invade the Ganges Valley
750 BC Indo-Aryans rule over 16 mahajanapadas ("great states") in northern India, from the Indus to the Ganges
700 BC The caste system emerges, with the Brahman priests at the top
600 BC The Upanishads are composed in Sanskrit
543 BC Bimbisara of Bihar conquers the Magadha region in the northeast and moves the capital to Rajagriha
527 BC Prince Siddhartha Gautama is enlightened and becomes the Buddha
521 BC Darius of Persia expands the Persian empire beyond the Indus River (Punjab and Sind)
500 BC The ascetic prince Mahavira founds Jainism in northern India
493 BC Bimbisara dies and is succeeded by Ajatashatru
461 BC Ajatashatru dies after expanding the Magadha territory
400 BC Panini's grammar (sutra) formalizes Sanskrit, an evolution of Vedic
327 BC Alexander of Macedonia invades the Indus valley
323 BC At the death of Alexander, Seleucus obtains India (Punjab)
304 BC The Magadha king Chandragupta Maurya buys the Indus valley for 500 elephants from Seleucus, and thus founds the Maurya dynasty with capital in Patna (Pataliputra)
300 BC The Ramayana is composed
300 BC The Chola dynasty rules over southern India with capital in Thanjavur
290 BC The Mauryan king Bindusara, son of Chandragupta, extends the empire to the Deccan
259 BC The Mauryan king Ashoka, grandson of Chandragupta, converts to Buddhism and sends out Buddhist missionaries to nearby states
251 BC Ashoka's son Mahinda introduces Buddhism to Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
250 BC Diodotos, ruler of the satrapy of Bactria (Afghanistan), declares its independence from the Seleucids and conquers Sogdiana
250 BC Buddhists carve the first cave temples (Lomas Rishi)
232 BC Ashoka dies
220 BC The Maurya dynasty under Ashoka's son Bindusara expands to almost all of India
206 BC Seleucid king Antiochus III conquers Punjab
200 BC The Mahabarata is composed
200 BC Demetrios I expands Bactria to northwestern India
200 BC The Andhras occupy the Indian east coast
184 BC The Maurya ruler Brihadratha is assassinated by Pushyamitra Sunga/Shunga, the Maurya dynasty ends and the Sunga dynasty begins
190 BC Bactrian king Euthydemus defeats Seleucid king Antiochus III at Magnesia
170 BC Batrian king Demetrios I expands Bactria to northwestern India
155 BC Bactrian king Menander invades northwestern India
150 BC Patanjali writes the "Yoga Sutras"
150 BC The Andhras under king Krishna move their capital to Paithan
150 BC The "Kama" sutra is composed
100 BC India is mainly divided among Bactria (northwest), Andhras (east) and Sungas (south)
100 BC The Bhagavata Gita is composed
80 BC The Scythians (Sakas) under Bhumaka conquer northwestern India from Bactria
78 BC The Sunga dynasty ends
50 BC King Simuka installs the Satavahanas in Andhra Pradesh and extends his kingdom to the whole of the Deccan plateau
50 BC The Scythians (Sakas) conquer Muttra and Taxila
50 AD Thomas, an apostle of Jesus, visits India
50 AD The first Buddhist stupa at Sanchi
127? AD Kanishka, king of the Kushan, enlarges the kingdom from Bactria into Uzbekistan, Kashmir, Punjab, moves the capital to Peshawar and promotes Buddhism
162 AD Kushan king Kanishka dies
200 AD The Manu code prescribes the rules of everyday life and divides Hindus into four castes (Brahmins, warriors, farmers/traders, non-Aryans)
233 AD Ardashir I Sassanid conquers the Kushan empire
250 AD The Satavahanas disintegrate
300 AD The Pallava dynasty is founded in Kanchi
318 AD Chandra Gupta founds the Gupta kingom in Magadha and extends its domains throughout northern India with capital at Patna
350 AD Samudra Gupta extends the Gupta kingdom to Assam, Deccan, Malwa
350 AD The Kadambas of Karnataka rule from Banavasi
350 AD The Sangam is compiled in the Tamil language in the kingdom of Madurai
350 AD The Puranas are composed (a compendium of Hindu mythology)
380 AD Buddhist monks carve two giant Buddha statues in the rock at Bamiya, Bactria (Afghanistan)
390 AD Chandra Gupta II extends the Gupta kingdom to Gujarat
400 AD The Shakas kingdom in Gujarat and Sindh dissolves
400 AD The Licchavi family unites Nepal
450 AD The Gupta king Kumargupta builds the monastic university of Nalanda (near Patna)
455 AD The Huns raid the Gupta empire (Punjab and Kashmir)
465 AD King Harisena of the Vakataka dynasty begins work at the Ajanta caves
499 AD The Hindu mathematician Aryabhata writes the "Aryabhatiya", the first book on Algebra
500 AD Bhakti cult in Tamil Nadu
510 AD Huns led by Mihiragula conquer Punjab, Gujarat and Malwa from the Gupta
528 AD The Gupta empire collapses under continuous barbaric invasions
535 AD Cave-temple of Elephanta Island (Bombay)
550 AD The Chalukyan kingdom is established in central India with capital in Badami
578 AD Badami shrines in Karnataka
600 AD Shakti cult (mother-goddess)
600 AD The Pallava dynasty dominates southern India from Kanchi
602 AD Tibet is unified under Namri Songtsen
606 AD Harsha Vardhana, a Buddhist, builds the kingdom of Thanesar in north India and Nepal with capital at Kanauij in the Punjab
625 AD Pulikesin extends the Chalukyan empire in central India
629 AD The Chinese monk Xuanzang (Huang Tsang) travels to India
629 AD Tibet expands to Nepal under Songtsen Gampo
630 AD Songzen Gampo introduces Buddhism to Bhutan
647 AD Thanesar king Harsha Vardhana is defeated by the Chalukyas (based in Karnataka) at Malwa (central India)
650 AD Ellora caves
650 AD The Pallavas rule from their capital at Kanchipuram (Tamil Nadu) are defeated by the Chalukyas
670 AD The Pallavas build a new city at Mamallapuram
700 AD The Mahavamsa is composed in the Pali language in Ceylon
700 AD The Shore temple at Mamallapuram
700 AD The Pallavas rule southern India from their capital Kanchipuram
711 AD The Arabs conquer Sindh and Multan (Pakistan)
723 AD Kathmandu is founded in Nepal
730 AD King Lalitaditya rules in Kashmir
750 AD Temples of Bhubaneshwar and Puri
750 AD The Gurjara-Pratiharas rule the north of India
750 AD The Palas rule eastern India
753 AD The Rashtrakutas, a Chalukya dynasty, expand from the Deccan into south and central India
757 AD The capital of the Chalukyan kingdom is moved from Badami to Pattadakal
757 AD The Kailasa temple at Ellora
775 AD The Rashtrakutas are defeated by the Chalukyas, who move the capital at Kalyani (Mysore)
775 AD Krishna I of the Rashtrakuta dynasty builds the rock-cut Kailasha Temple at Ellora
784 AD The Pratihara king Nagabhata II conquers the sacred capital of the north, Kanyakubja
800 AD Kingdoms are created in central India and in Rajastan by Rajputs (warlords)
800 AD Shankar (Samkara) Acharya founds the Hinduist monastery of Sringeri
842 AD The Tibetan emperor Langdarma is assassinated and the empire disintegrates
846 AD The Cholas regain independence from the Pallavas
871 AD Sindh and Multan (Pakistan) are de facto independent from the Baghdad caliphate
885 AD The Pratihara empire reaches its peak under Adivaraha Mihira Bhoja I, extending from Punjab to Gujarat to Central India
888 AD The Pallava dynasty ends
890 AD First Hindu temples at Khajuraho
900 AD The Bhagavata Purana is composed in Sanskrit
950 AD The Tomara Rajputs gain independence from the Gurjara-Pratihara empire and found their capital at Delhi
950 AD The Chandellas gain independence from the Gurjara-Pratihara empire and found their capital at Khajuraho (Madhya Pradresh)
977 AD Sebaktigin, a slave general, founds the Ghaznavid dynasty in Afghanistan, northern India and Central Asia
985 AD Rajaraja Chola I extends the Chola empire to all of south India and builds the temple of Thanjavur
997 AD Mahmud of Ghazni raids northern India
998 AD Mahmud of Ghazni conquers Punjab
1000 AD The tribal chieftain Nripa Kama conquers the area between the Cholas (south) and the Badami Chalukyas (north) and founds the Hoysala dynasty
1000 AD Lingaraja and Rajarani temples at Bhubaneshwar (Orissa)
1000 AD The Shahi state is annexed to the Ghaznavid empire
1000 AD The Chola king Rajaraja builds the Brihadeshvara Temple in Thanjavur (Tanjore)
1014 AD Rajendra Chola I becomes the Chola ruler of the south and defeats the Palas in Bengal
1017 AD The Cholas conquer Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
1019 AD Mahmud Ghaznavid raids north India and destroys Kanauj, capital of the Gurjara-Pratihara empire
1030 AD The Ghaznavid empire conquers Punjab
1030 AD The Solanki kings build the Jain temples at Mount Abu
1050 AD The Chola empire conquers Srivijaya, Malaya and the Maldives
1070 AD Vijayabahu I of Rohanna expels the Cholas from Ceylon and moves the capital to Polonnaruva
1084 AD Mahipala brings the Palas to the peak of their power
1150 AD The Senas conquer the Palas
1153 AD Parakramabahu I of Ceylon moves the capital to Polonnaruva and builds the gigantic artificial lake of Parakrama Samudra
1175 AD Ghurid Turks defeat the Ghazni Turks in the Punjab and the Ghaznavid state is absorbed into the Ghurid empire
1190 AD The Chalukya empire is split among Hoysalas (south), Yadavas and Kakatiyas
1192 AD Turkic-speaking chieftains from Afghanistans led by Muhammad of Ghor defeat Prithvi Raj, capture Delhi and establish a Muslim sultanate at Delhi
1197 AD The Ghuris destroy the Hindu monasteries at Nalanda and Vikramashila
1211 AD Iltutmish Shams becomes the sultan of Delhi
1206 AD The Ghurid prince Qutb al-Din Aybak becomes the first sultan of Delhi (Delhi Sultanate)
1225 AD Qutb al-Din Aybak builds the Qutb Minar in Delhi, the tallest minaret in the world
1250 AD The Urdu language develops by absorbing elements of Persian, Arabic and Indian dialects
1250 AD A temple to the Sun in the form of a giant chariot is built at Konarak
1250 AD End of the Chola dynasty
1266 AD One of Iltutmish's slaves, Baban, seizes power of the Delhi sultanate, and welcomes Islamic refugees fleeing the Mongol hordes the Delhi sultanate
1288 AD The Italian explorer Marco Polo visits India
1290 AD Jalal al-Din Firuz founds the Khalji sultanate
1300 AD The Tamil establish a kingdom in Ceylon
1303 AD Jalal al-Din Firuz rebuilds Delhi
1304 AD Mongols under Ali Beg invade India but are repelled by the Delhi sultanate
1321 AD Jordanus, a Dominican monk, is the first Christian missionary in India
1325 AD Muhammad ibn Tughluq becomes sultan of Delhi
1327 AD sultan Muhammad ibn Tughluq moves his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad (Deogiri) in the Deccan
1328 AD The Mongols invade India but are repelled by the Delhi sultanate
1333 AD The Muslim explorer Ibn Battuta travels to India
1336 AD The southernmost province of the Delhi sultanate declares independence
1341 AD Bengal (under Fakhruddin Mubarak) declares its independence from the Delhi sultanate
1343 AD The southern kingdom builds its capital at Vijayanagar (Hampi)
1345 AD Muslim nobles revolt against Muhammad ibn Tughluq, declare their independence from the Delhi sultanate, and found the Bahmani dynasty in the Deccan
1346 AD The Vijayanagar kingdom conquers the Hoysalas
1346 AD The Hoysala dynasty disintegrates
1349 AD Muslims raid Kathmandu in Nepal
1350 AD The Kadambas empire disintegrates into the dynasties of Goa, Hanagal and Chandavar
1370 AD The Vijayanagar kingdom conquers the Muslim sultanate of Madura (Tamil Nadu)
1382 AD Jaya Sthiti of the Malla dynasty seizes power in Nepal
1387 AD The Kalan Masjid is built in Delhi
1398 AD Timur invades India and sacks Delhi, causing demise of the Delhi Sultinate
1490 AD Guru Nanak Dev founds Sikhism and the city of Amritsar
1497 AD Babur, a descendant of both Genghis Khan and Timur, becomes the ruler of Ferghana and founds the Mughal (Mogul) dynasty
1498 AD The Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama reaches India
1509 AD Portugal conquers Diu and Goa in India
1509 AD The Vijayanagar kingdom reaches its zenith under Krishna Raja
1526 AD Babur captures Delhi from Ibrahim, the sultan of Delhi, and founds the Mogul empire in India
1530 AD Babur dies and his son Humayun succeeds him
1534 AD Portugal acquires Bombay
1539 AD Viswanatha founds the Nayak dynasty with capital in Madurai (south India)
1540 AD Babur's son Humayun loses the empire to Afghan Leader Sher Shah and goes into exile in Persia
1550 AD The Jain complex at Palitana
1555 AD The Mogul king Humayun reconquers India
1556 AD The Mogul king Humayun dies and his son Akbar becomes the ruler of India
1562 AD Akbar marries Padmini, a Hindu princess of the Rajaputana kingdom
1565 AD Four Muslim kingdoms ally to destroy the Vijyanagar kingdom at the battle of Talikota
1565 AD Mysore, a former Vijayanagar principality, becomes independent under the Wodeyars
1600 AD The British East India Company is established.
1605 AD Akbar dies and is succeeded by his son Jahangir
1617 AD Jahangir's son, prince Khurram, pacifies the southern states and receives the title of Shah Jahan
1623 AD Thirumala Nayakan brings Madurai to its maximum glory
1627 AD Shivaji (Sivaji) founds the Maratha kingdom
1627 AD Jahangir dies and Shah Jahan succeeds him
1631 AD Shah Jahan builds the Taj Mahal
1639 AD Britain acquires Madras from the raja of Chandragiri
1649 AD The Vijayanagar empire dissolves
1658 AD Shah Jahan's son Aurangajeb overthrows the government and seizes power
1665 AD Britian acquires Bombay from Portugal
1672 AD France settles Pondicherry
1688 AD The Moguls complete the conquest of India
1690 AD Britain acquires Calcutta
1699 AD Guru Gobind Singh creates the Sikh armed wing of the Akalis
1707 AD Aurangjeb dies, destabalizing the Mogul Empire
1710 AD From the Mogul empire a number of kingdoms arise: Sikhs (Punjab), Rajputs (Rajasthan), and Marathas (West India)
1713 AD The prime minister (peshwa) of Maratha, Balaji Vaishvanath, becomes the real ruler of the Maratha kingdom and the peshwa becomes a hereditary title
1724 AD The Mogul emperor Asaf Jah retires to become the ruler of Hyderabad
1736 AD The Nayak dynasty ends in south India (Madurai is bought by the British)
1738 AD Persian general Nader Shah invades India and captures Delhi
1747 AD Nader Shah is assassinated
1751 AD By capturing the town of Arcot from the French, Britain becomes the leading colonial power in India
1757 AD At the battle of Plassey the East India company defeats France and gains access to Bengal
1758 AD The Marathas conquer Punjab
1761 AD The Marathas rule over most of northern India
1761 AD Afghani invaders led by Ahmad Durani defeat the Marathas at Panipat, thus starting the decline of the Maratha empire
1764 AD Britain expands to Bengal and Bihar
1769 AD A famine kills ten million people in Bengal
1773 AD Warren Hastings, governor of Bengal (India), establishes a monopoly on the sale of opium
1776 AD The Marathas conquer Mysore
1794 AD The Marathas conquer Delhi
1802 AD The Sikh maharaja Ranjit Singh establishes the Sikh kingdom with political capital in Lahore and religious capital in Amritsar
1803 AD Britain takes Delhi from the Marathas
1815 AD Ceylon is occupied by the British, who ferry Tamil workers from India
1816 AD Nepal becomes a British protectorate
1849 AD Britain annexes the Sikh kingdom of Punjab
1853 AD The British build the first Indian railway
1857 AD Indian rebels begin the first war of independence
1858 AD Power on the Indian colony is transferred to the British government
1862 AD Bahadur Shah II dies, the Mogul dynasty ends and India becomes a British colony
1882 AD Mirza Ghulam Ahmed founds in Punjab the Islamic missionary movement of the Ahmedis who oppose jihad, believe that Jesus died in Srinagar and call for a non-violent Islam
1885 AD The Indian National Congress is founded
1904 AD British troops occupy Tibet
1906 AD The All-India Muslim League is founded
1913 AD The 13th Dalai Lama proclaims Tibet an independent country
1916 AD The Lucknow Pact unites the Congress and the League in their fight for independence from Britain
1920 AD Mahatma Gandhi founds the non-violent liberation movement Satyagraha
1921 AD Jawaharlal Nehru is arrested for civil disobedience
1921 AD Only 13% of Indian men and 1.8% of Indian women can read and write
1921 AD 156,000 British citizens rule over 306 million Indian subjects
1922 AD Gandhi is imprisoned following terrorist acts against the British
1923 AD Britain recognises Nepal's independence
1927 AD Maulana Muhammad Ilyas founds in India the Tablighi, up a missionary movement to spread orthodox Islam worldwide
1930 AD Allama Iqbal calls for a separate homeland for the Muslims
1930 AD Gandhi unleashes "civil disobedience" against the British
1933 AD The 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet dies
1933 AD The term Pakistan is coined to denote the country of Punjabi, Afghani, Kashmiri, Sini and Baluchistani people
1937 AD First elections are held, won by Congress
1940 AD Tenzin Gyatso becomes the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet
1942 AD Nehru replaced Gandhi as the recognized leader of the National Congress party
1944 AD Gandhi is released from prison
1947 AD Lord Mountbatten announces the partition of the colony in two independent countries, India and Pakistan
1947 AD One million people die in communal violence due to the partition
1947 AD Following rioting by the Muslim majority in Kashmir, Pakistani troops attack India and occupy part of Kashmir
1947 AD Jawaharlal Nehru becomes the first prime minister of India
1947 AD Tibet requests India to return land annexed by India as part of several Indian states
1948 AD Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated by a Hindu extremist
1948 AD Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the prime minister of Pakistan, dies and is succeeded by Liaquat Ali Khan
1948 AD India refuses to allow the plebiscite in Kashmir and Kashmir separatism is born (40,000 people will die in 55 years)
1948 AD Ceylon becomes independent and the government of Don Stephen Senanayake revokes the citizenship of the Tamil minority
1949 AD To quell an uprising, India invades the independent country of Sikkim
1949 AD India signs a treaty with Bhutan to conduct its foreign policy
1950 AD Mao's China invades Tibet
1951 AD Pakistan's leader Liaquat Ali Khan is assassinated, while general Muhammad Ayub Khan is appointed chief of the army
1952 AD India holds the first general elections, won by the Congress Party
1954 AD The USA becomes the main provider of military goods and training for Pakistan
1955 AD Polygamy is abolished in India
1956 AD Pakistan enacts a new constitution and becomes an Islamic republic
1956 AD Prime minister Nehru of India fosters a neutral stance between communism and capitalism and founds the Non-Aligned Movement
1956 AD The Sinhalese nationalist (and buddhist) party gains power and Solomon Bandaranaike becomes prime minister
1957 AD India annexes Kashmir
1958 AD General Ayyub Khan takes over Pakistan's government in a coup
1959 AD A Tibetan uprising against the Chinese fails in Lhasa and the Dalai Lama flees Tibet (87,000 Tibetans killed)
1959 AD Solomon Bandaranaike is assassinated by a Buddhist monk and is succeeded by his widow, Sirimavo
1960 AD King Mahendra seizes power in Nepal
1961 AD Pakistani president Ayub Khan signs a cooperation pact with the USA to counterbalance Soviet influence in India
1961 AD India invades the Portuguese colonies of Goa, Daman and Diu
1962 AD Pakistan signs a border treaty with China
1962 AD India fights and loses a border war with China in Assam
1963 AD Kumar Patel invents the laser
1964 AD Indian prime minister Nehru dies
1965 AD India and Pakistan fight another war over Kashmir
1966 AD Indira Gandhi, daughter of Nehru, becomes prime minister of India
1969 AD Pakistani leader Ayyub Khan is succeeded by another general, Yahya Khan
1970 AD The secessionist Awami League led by Sheik Mujibur Rahman wins the elections in East Pakistan
1971 AD Defended by India, East Pakistan separates from West Pakistan and becomes the independent country of Bangladesh under the rule of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
1971 AD The Sinhalese Maoist Janata Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) movement foments political riots
1972 AD King Mahendra of Nepal dies and is succeeded by Birendra
1972 AD Ceylon changes its name to Sri Lanka and becomes a socialist republic
1973 AD Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto becomes prime minister of Pakistan
1973 AD Balochistan rebels against Pakistan
1974 AD 28,000 people die in floods in Bangladesh
1974 AD Pakistan recognizes Bangladesh
1974 AD India detonates an underground nuclear weapon
1974 AD Sikkim votes overwhelmingly to join India
1975 AD Bangladesh's leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman is assassinated in a military coup led by general Zia Rahman
1975 AD India annexes Sikkim
1975 AD Embroiled in scandals, Indira Gandhi declares a state of emergency, under which her political foes are imprisoned, constitutional rights abrogated, and the press placed under censorship
1976 AD To curb population growth, Indira Gandhi initiates a program of forced sterilization
1976 AD India's prime minister Indira Gandhi signs a cooperation pact with the Soviet Union
1976 AD The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam is founded to protect the rights of the Tamil minority and wins the elections in Tamil-dominated regions
1977 AD Bangladesh enacts a new constitution and becomes an Islamic republic
1977 AD Pakistan quells the rebellion in Balochistan (after 8,000 people died)
1977 AD The corrupt government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto is overthrown by a military coup led by general Zia ul-Haq, a Muslim fundamentalist who reinstates public hangings, death by stoning and public beatings according to Islamic law
1978 AD The Karakoram Highway linking Pakistan and China is opened, thereby increasing trade and military cooperation between the two countries
1978 AD Sri Lanka becomes a presidential republic and Junius Richard Jayawardene is appointed president replacing prime minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike with Ranasinghe Premadasa
1978 AD The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) conducts the first terrorist attack in Sri Lanka
1979 AD Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto is hanged
1980 AD US uses Pakistan to help rebels fighting the Soviet Union in Afghanistan
1981 AD Bangladesh's leader Rahman Zia is assassinated in a military coup
1982 AD Bangladesh is ruled by general Ershad, an Islamic fundamentalist who eventually declares Islam as the state religion
1983 AD The Tamil issue becomes a military issue after confrontation between Tamil tigers and the army leaves hundreds dead
1984 AD While fighting the Sikh secessionist movement of Jarnail Singh Bindranwale, Indian troops enter the holy Sikh shrine of the "Golden Temple"
1984 AD Indira Gandhi is assassinated by Sikh bodyguards and is succeeded by her son Rajiv
1984 AD A leak at the Union Carbide pesticides plant in Bhopal causes 14,000 deaths
1985 AD Sikh militants plant a bomb on an Air India flight out of Canada killing all 329 passengers
1986 AD India rigs Kashmir elections and Kashmir separatists takes up arms
1987 AD First suicide bombing by a Tiger in Sri Lanka
1987 AD India deploys troops in Sri Lanka in a peacekeeping mission
1987 AD India sends a peace-keeping force to broker a truce between the army and the Tamil tigers (1,200 Indian soldiers will die)
1987 AD The Tamil Tigers start using suicide bombers
1987 AD Abdul Wadeer Khan, the father of Pakistan's Atomic bomb, begins contacts with Iran to sell nuclear secrets
1988 AD Political violence claims the lives of thousands in Sri Lanka before and after national elections
1988 AD An Indian ferry capsizes on the Ganges River, killing over 400 people
1988 AD Zia, the US ambassador and top Pakistan army officials die in mysterious air crash
1988 AD Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's daughter Benazir wins the general elections in Pakistan
1988 AD Millions of people are left homeless during massive floods
1989 AD Ranasinghe Premadasa is elected president of Sri Lanka
1989 AD Rajiv Gandhi is the first Indian prime minister to visit Pakistan
1989 AD Tibetans revolt against the occupying Chinese troops and hundreds are killed
1989 AD The separatist group Hizbul Mujahideen is founded in India-controlled Kashmir
1990 AD Indian troops withdrawn from Sri Lanka
1990 AD Benazir Bhutto is removed from prime minister of Pakistan, on charges of incompetence and corruption, and is succeeded by Nawaz Sharif
1990 AD Pakistan funds and arms Islamic volunteers to fight the Soviet Union in Afghanistan
1990 AD Islamic terrorism in Kashmir increases against the Indian occupying troops
1990 AD Indian troops leave Sri Lanka
1990 AD the All Tripura Tiger Force (ATTF) is founded by Lalit Debbarma to fight for Tripura's secession from India
1991 AD Nepal holds its first democratic elections that herald an age of political instability (eleven governments in eleven years)
1991 AD The Indian army attacks Sikh strongholds in Punjab killing more than 3,300 civilians
1991 AD Rajiv Gandhi is assassinated by Tamil separatists and succeeded by Narasimha Rao
1991 AD In Bangladesh, president Ershad is sentenced to jail for corruption and Begum Khaleda Zia, widow of Zia Rahman, becomes prime minister
1991 AD A tsunami kills 138,000 people in Bangladesh
1991 AD India liberalizes its protectionist economy
1992 AD Hindu extremists destroy a mosque in Ayodhya
1992 AD Tamil tigers kill dozens of Muslims in Sri Lanka
1993 AD Muslims and Hindus riot in Bombay (800 people died)
1993 AD Muslim terrorists detonate several bombs in Mumbai killing 250 people
1993 AD Benazir Bhutto wins national elections again in Pakistan
1995 AD Abdul Wadeer Khan, the father of Pakistan's Atomic bomb, begins contacts with North Korea to sell nuclear secrets
1993 AD A bombing campaign by Tamil rebels in Sri Lanka kills even president Premadasa
1993 AD A bomb destroys the Bombay stock exchange
1994 AD Muslim separatists plant bombs in Kashmir, killing dozens
1994 AD Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga is elected president of Sri Lanka and appoints her mother Sirimavo Bandaranaike as prime minister
1995 AD The Nepal Communist Party begins an armed insurrection in Nepal
1995 AD Abdul Wadeer Khan, the father of Pakistan's Atomic bomb, begins contacts with Libya to sell nuclear secrets
1995 AD Azam Tariq, a Pakistani Sunny cleric leader of the pro-Taliban party Sipah-i-Sahaba, publicly calls for attacks on Shiites in Pakistan
1996 AD Pakistani prime minister Benazir Bhutto is removed again on charges of corruption
1996 AD Pakistan helps the Taliban overthrow the Afghan government
1996 AD Sheikh Hasina Wajed, the daughter of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, wins the elections in Bangladesh
1996 AD Tamil rebels bomb the capital of Sri Lanka
1996 AD The Nationalist Party wins the election and Atal Behari Vajpayee becomes prime minister
1997 AD The Muslim League wins general elections in Pakistan
1997 AD Nawaz Sharif is elected prime minister of Pakistan
1998 AD Pakistan provides North Korea with nuclear technology in exchange for missile technology
1998 AD India and Pakistan conduct nuclear tests
1998 AD Massive floods in Bangladesh
1998 AD 211 die in a train collision in the Punjab
1998 AD A Muslim fundamentalist, Tablighi Muslim Rafiq Tarar, is elected president of Pakistan
1999 AD Benazir Bhutto is sentenced to jail in absentia
1999 AD Escalation of violence in Kashmir between Indian troops and freedom fighters backed by Pakistan
1999 AD Pakistani prime minister Nawaz Sharif is overthrown in a military coup led by general Pervez Musharraf
1999 AD A cyclone devastates the Indian state of Orissa killing 10,000 people
1999 AD 285 die in a train collision near Calcutta
1999 AD The world's largest Tibetan tangka is completed (a 1,500 square meter, 1,000 kg scroll)
2000 AD The population of India is one billion
2000 AD The Tamil leader Velupillai Prabhakaran offers peace talks to the Sri Lankan government
2001 AD King Birendra of Nepal and his entire family are killed by a crown prince, and Gyanendra becomes the new king
2001 AD King Gyanendra declares a state of emergency after dozens are killed by Maoists
2001 AD An earthquakes kills 30,000 people in the Indian state of Gujarat
2001 AD Skirmishes between the Indian and Bangladeshi armies leave 20 soldiers dead
2001 AD The Islamic government of Afghanistan destroy the century-old Buddha statues of Bamiyan
2001 AD Pakistan helps the US fight the Taliban in Afghanistan
2001 AD Muslim separatists attack the Parliament in New Delhi
2001 AD Several bombs kill more than 30 people in Bangladesh
2001 AD Khaleda Zia wins the election in Bangladesh
2001 AD Ranil Wickremesinghe wins Sri Lanka's elections and becomes prime minister after campaigning on a peace platform
2001 AD The Kumbh Mela pilgrimage at Allahabad draws at least 20 million pilgrims
2002 AD Raids by Maoist rebels leave 127 people dead in Nepal
2002 AD Following the burning of a train by Muslim cleric Maulana Hussain Umarij, ethnic rioting erupts in Gujarat that kills 1,000 people, mainly Muslims
2002 AD Peace talks begin between Sri Lanka's prime minister Ranil Wickremesinghe and the Tamil rebels (the civil war has killed over 64,000 people)
2002 AD Islamic militants increase attacks on Kashmir and other Indian states
2002 AD The first democratic elections are held in Pakistan since 1999 and Zafarullah Khan Jamali becomes prime minister
2003 AD Islamic terrorists attack a Shiite mosque and kill nine people
2003 AD Islamic terrorists execute up 24 Hindu civilians in Kashmir
2003 AD India vaccinates 165 million children to eradicate polio
2003 AD Tripura separatist rebels kill 22 Bengali villagers
2003 AD Members of the Sunni terrorist group Lashkar-e-Jhangvi kill eleven police officers of the Shia community in Baluchistan, Pakistan
2003 AD A ferry capzised in Bangladesh killing over 400 people
2003 AD 34 people are killed by separatists in northeastern India
2003 AD 46 people are killed in two bomb attacks in Bombay by the Islamic group "Students Islamic Movement of India" (SIMI)
2003 AD Azam Tariq, a Pakistani Sunny cleric leader of the pro-Taliban party Sipah-i-Sahaba, is killed
2003 AD Pakistani president Pervez Musharraf survives two assassination attempts
2004 AD Pakistan's top nuclear scientist, Abdul Qadeer Khan, confesses on tv that he helped Iran, Libya and North Korea acquire nuclear technology
2004 AD The war between Maoist rebels and the Nepalese army leaves hundreds of people dead
2004 AD The party of Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga wins elections in Sri Lanka against the party of prime minister Ranil Wickremesinghe and Mahinda Rajapakse is appointed prime minister
2004 AD Pakistan carries out a 12-day military offensive in South Waziristan on the border with Afghanistan to dislodge Al Waeda and Taliban fighters
2004 AD Despite an economic boom, a third of Indians live on less than a dollar a day
2004 AD the Congress Party wins national elections but its leader, Italian-born Sonia Gandhi, lets Manmohan Singh, a Sikh, become India's new prime minister
2004 AD Bangalore has 150,000 software engineers, more than the Silicon Valley in California
2004 AD 29 Indians are killed in Kashmir by a bomb planted by Islamic separatists
2004 AD A ferry sinks in Bangladesh killing about 160 people
2004 AD 43 Shiite Muslims are killed during a religious festival in Pakistan by Sunni extremists of Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (march) and a bomb blast kills 15 people at a Shia mosque in Karachi (may) in retaliation for the killing of a top Sunni Muslim cleric, Mufti Nizamuddin Shamzai
2004 AD Bomb blasts at a Sunni gathering kill 39 people in Pakistan and bomb blasts at a Shia mosque kill 19
2004 AD Maoist rebels control 68 of Nepal's 75 districts
2004 AD Ten people are killed in a bomb blast in Quetta, Pakistan
2004 AD Tsunamis caused by one of the strongest earthquakes in history (9.0 magnitude) kill thousands in Southeast Asia
2005 AD More than 30 people are killed in a bomb blast at the Fatehpu shrine in Pakistan
2005 AD China and India sign a treaty in which China gives up any claim on the state of Sikkim
2005 AD A bomb blast at a Muslim shrine in Pakistan's capital Islamabad kills at least 20 people
2005 AD Rebels throw rockets at president Musharraf in Balochistan
2005 AD An bomb by Hizbul Mujahideen kills nine Indian soldiers in Kashmir
2005 AD Pakistan expels foreign Islamic students, who frequently support terrorism
2005 AD Pakistan launches its first long-range nuclear-capable missile and its first cruise missile
2005 AD Sri Lankan foreign minister Lakshman Kadirgamar is assassinated by members of the Liberation Tamil Tigers of Eelam (LTTE)
2005 AD 350 bombs planted by Islamic fundamentalists of Jamayetul Mujahedin detonate in Bangladesh
2005 AD Tamil Tiger rebels in Sri Lanka agree to hold direct talks with the government
2005 AD Asif Chotto, head of the terrorist group Lashkar-e-Jhangvi that killed hundreds of Pakistani shiites, is arrested
2005 AD Bombs set by Kashmiri militants of Lashkar-e-Toiba kill 59 people in New Delhi
2005 AD Maoists (Naxalites) kill 24 police officers in India
2005 AD Muslims in Sangla Hill (Punjab) destroy two Catholic churches and two schools because they think that someone has burned a copy of the Quran
2005 AD Sri Lanka's prime minister Mahinda Rajapakse wins presidential elections
2005 AD Seven people are killed by Islamic terrorists of Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen in Bangladesh, the first suicide bombing in the country's history
2005 AD 900 people are killed in 2005 in violence related to the Maoist insurgency of the Naxalites
2006 AD 23 shiites are killed by a suicide bomber in Pakistan
2006 AD Maoists (Naxalites) kill 25 people in India
2006 AD Bangladesh arrests Abdur Rahman, leader of terrorist organization Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen
2006 AD The USA and India sign a nuclear agreement
2006 AD Bombs kill more than 20 people in Varanasi
2006 AD 25 Muslims are killed in Pakistan during fights between rival factions
2006 AD 47 people are killed in a suspected suicide bomb attack at a Sunni religious gathering in Karachi, Pakistan
2006 AD Massive pro-democracy protests in Nepal
2006 AD Islamists kill 35 hindus in Kashmir
2006 AD Tamil Tiger rebels sink a Sri Lanka navy gunboat in a sea battle that leaves at least 45 people dead
2006 AD 58 people die when a bus hits a landmine in Sri Lanka
2006 AD Pakistan kills 25 Baloch rebels of Nawab Akbar Bugti's militia
2006 AD Multiple terrorist bombs in Mumbai kill more than 200 people
2006 AD Government troops and Tamil Tiger rebels fight on three fronts in Sri Lanka despite the 2002 ceasefire agreement