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Telangana

Telangana is a state/Union Territory of India.

Telangana state was formed on June 2, 2014 as the 29th state in India with Hyderabad as its capital. Telangana has an area of 1,14,840 square kilometers and has a total population of 3,52,86,757. Telangana is bordered by Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh in the North, Karnataka in the West and Andhra Pradesh in the South and East. The word Telangana is derived from Telugu + Gana, which literally means Telugu Speaking People.

Telangana is situated in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. The Deccan plateau is drained by two major rivers, the Godavari and the Krishna. 69% of the Krishna River and 79% of the Godavari River catchment area is under Telangana. Telangana is also drained by other minor rivers such as Manair, Bhima, Dindi, Kinnerasani, Manjeera, Munneru, Moosi, Penganga, Praanahita, and Peddavagu and Taliperu.

Telangana is divided into 31 districts. Hyderabad is the largest and most populous city. As many as 11 cities and towns in Telangana have been selected from the state for development under the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) scheme. These are Hyderabad, Khammam, Warangal, Adilabad, Nizamabad, Karimnagar,Mahabubabad, Nalgonda, Suryapet, Miryalaguda and Ramagundam. Hyderabad and Warangal are selected to be developed as smart cities.

The Telangana region has rich natural resources. The Singareni Collieries Company excavates coal for industrial purposes and for thermal power stations. The power generated is supplied to the entire of South India. There are limestone deposits in the region, which cater to cement factories. Telangana has other resources such as bauxite and mica.

Telangana State has 86% Hindu, 12.4% Muslim, and 1.2% Christian population. More than 95% of Telangana people speak Telugu. About 35% of Telangana people speak Hyderabadi Urdu. Urdu speakers are mostly Muslims, though people of other ethnicities also use Urdu for day-to-day life. Hindi is spoken by people from other states of North and Central India. The people boardering other states speak Kannada and Marathi.

Bonalu, Bathukamma, Diwali, Dassera, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Milad un Nabi, Christmas and Ugadi are prominent festivals in Telangana. Other festivals such as Sankranthi, Holi, Raksha Bandhan, Eid-ul-Fitr and Milad un Nabi are also celebrated with equal enthusiasm. Bathukamma and Bonalu are regional festivals of Telangana.

The Telangana region was once a part of the princely state of Hyderabad, ruled by the Nizams, which also included some parts of the present-day Maharashtra and Karnataka. Hyderabad, during Nizam's rule, was the only state where the language of administration was neither English, nor that of the locals people. The language of the courts, the administration and instruction in educational institutions was primarily Urdu.

History

Satavahana dynasty, which ruled from 230 BCE to 220 CE, originated from the lands between the Godavari and Krishna rivers. Kotilingala in Karimnagar was their first capital, before moving to Dharanikota. The Satavahana Empire played an important role in repelling foreign empires such as the Indo-Greeks. The region experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty. This dynasty ruled most parts of what is now Telangana and Andhra Pradesh from 1083 to 1323. Ganapatideva was known as the greatest of the Kakatiyas, and the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. During his reign the Golkonda fort was constructed. Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra were other prominent rulers from this dynasty.

Kakatiya Kingdom was ended by its conquest by the Delhi Sultanate. Telangana then became a province of the Bahamani Sultanate from 1347 till 1518. After the fall of Bahamani Sultanate, the Telangana region became the core of the Golconda Sultanate (1518-1687). With the collapse of Golconda after the invasion of Aurangzeb in 17th century, the region became a Mughal province. After the disintegration of the Mughal Empire, Telangana became the Nizamate of Hyderabad state.

The Nizam rule continued from 1720 till 1950 - first formally as subsidiary to the Moghul Emperor, later allied with the French, and then with the English East India Company. Eventually the Nizam acknowledged as his overlord the British sovereign. From India's Independence that is August 15, 1947 till September 1, 1948, Hyderabad state was an independent state belonging to the Nizam. With Indian Army's takeover Telangana became part of the Indian Union in September 1948. Hyderabad state continued till 1950 with a military government and then on a civil administrator directed by New Delhi.

The Nizam's de jure role, however, lasted till November 19, 1949 when the Nizam accepted the Constitution of India as the Constitution of Hyderabad state. From January 26, 1950, he was Rajpramukh of Hyderabad state, which was given the status of a Part B state in the Union and Republic of India. The Nizam officiated as Rajpramukh through the first general election of 1952 and, finally gave up his nominal role in 1956, when Hyderabad state and Andhra state joined to become Andhra Pradesh.

M.K. Vellodi was appointed as the first Chief Minister of Hyderabad state on 26 January 1950. In 1952, Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected as Chief Minister of Hyderabad state in the first democratic election. The proposal for merging of Hyderabad state with Andhra state wad made in 1953. Andhra assembly passed a resolution on November 25, 1955 accepting the merger proposal. An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders to merge Telangana and Andhra and "Gentlemen’s Agreement" was then signed by Bezawada Gopala Reddy and Burgula Ramakrishna Rao on February 20, 1956 . Under the States Re-organisation Act, Telugu-speaking areas of Hyderabad state were merged with Andhra state, giving birth to the state of Andhra Pradesh on 1 November, 1956. The region comprised 10 districts of the new state of Andhra Pradesh.

Telangana was divided from Andhra Pradesh and formed Telangana State on June 2, 2014 with 10 districts namely Hyderabad, Rangareddy, Medak, Adilabad, Nizamabad, Karimnagar, Warangal, Khammam, Nalgonda, and Mehboobnagar.

21 new districts are created on 11 October 2016 for better governance. The new districts created are Siddipet, Komram Bheem, Kamareddy, Jayashankar, Suryapet, Wanaparthy, Jangaon, Peddapalli, Rajanna, Nirmal, Mahabubabad, Bhadradri, Medchal-Malkajgiri, Sangarreddy, Jogulamba, Warangal Rural, Yadadri, Vikarabad, Jagtial, Mancherial, and Nagarkurnool.