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Jharkhand

Jharkhand is a state/Union Territory of India.

Jharkhand is a state of eastern India. It was carved out of the southern portion of Bihar state on November 15, 2000. The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital. The other major cities are Bokaro, Dhanbad and Jamshedpur. The region is also known as Vananchal. Jharhkand is bordered by the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east.

Most of the state lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau, which is the source of the Koel, Damodar, Brahmani, Kharkai, and Subarnarekha rivers, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand. Much of the state is still covered by forest. Forest reserves support populations of tigers and Indian elephants. Deposits of coal and iron ore support concentrations of industry, in centers like Jamshedpur and Ranchi.

Jharkhand is home to a number of languages belonging to three major language families. Indo-Aryan languages include Sadri, Hindi, Urdu, Bengali. Jharkand is also home to the Munda languages Korku, Santhali, Mundari, Bhumij, Paharia and Ho, and the Dravidian languages Korwa, Oraon, and Sauria Paharia.

During the Mughal period, the Jharkhand area was known as Kukara. After the year 1765, it came under the control of the British Empire and became formally known under its present title, "Jharkhand" - the Land of "Jungles" (forests) and "Jharis" (bushes). The subjugation and colonization of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people. Almost one hundred years before Indian Rebellion of 1857, adivasis of Jharkhand were started revolts against the British colonial rule. The period of revolts of the Adivasis to protect their Jharkhand land took place from 1771 to 1900 AD. The first ever revolt against the landlords and the British government was led by Tilka Manjhi, a valiant Santhal leader in Santal tribal belt in 1771. Then Birsa Munda revolt, broke out in 1895 and lasted till 1900. The revolt though mainly concentrated in the Munda belt of Khunti, Tamar, Sarwada and Bandgaon, pulled its supporters from Oraon belt of Lohardaga, Sisai and even Barway. It was the longest and the greatest tribal revolt in Jharkhand. It was also the last tribal revolt in Jharkhand. All of these uprisings were quelled by the British through massive deployment of troops across the region.

Jharkhand state was created on 15 November 2000 by carving out 18 districts of Bihar but the dream of Greater Jharkhand still remained unfulfilled. Tribal dominated districts of Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar, Sundargarh and Deogarh of Orissa state and Purulia,Bankura and Midnapore districts of West Bengal and the districts of Jashpur, Surguja, Koriya of Chhattisgarh state are still not part of Jharkhand.