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Chandigarh

Chandigarh is a state/Union Territory of India.

Chandigarh is a union territory of India and the capital city of two states Punjab and Haryana. The name Chandigarh means The Fort of Chandi. The name is derived from an ancient temple called Chandi Mandir (abode of Goddess Chandi) situated in the city. It is the first planned city of India and it was planned by the famous French architect Le Corbusier. It is located at the foothills of Shivaliks.

The Government of Punjab approved the area of the foothills of the Shivaliks as the site for the new capital in 1948. Subsequently, at the time of reorganization of the state on November 1, 1966 into Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pardesh, the city became the capital city of Punjab and Haryana while it itself was declared as a Union Territory and under the direct control of the Central Government.

Out of a total area of 20,000 acres acquired for the first phase of the city, about 2000 acres are allotted for parks. Leisure Valley, Rajendra park, Bougainvillea Park, Zakir Rose Garden, Shanti Kunj, Hibiscus Garden, Garden of Fragrance, Botanical Garden, Smriti Upavan, Topiary garden and Terraced Garden are some of the famous parks of Chandigarh. Sukhna Lake, Rock Garden, Government Museum and Art Gallery are major tourist destinations in Chandigarh.

Chandigarh is composed of sectors. Each sector is 800 meters by 1,200 meters, enclosed by roads allocated to fast mechanised transport and sealed to direct access from the houses. Each sector caters to the daily needs of its inhabitants, which vary from 5,000 to 25,000 and has a green strip oriented longitudinally stretching centrally along the sector in the direction of the mountains. Vehicular traffic is completely forbidden in the green strips.

The roads of the city are classified into seven categories, known as the system of 7 Vs, as below: V-1 -- Fast roads connecting Chandigarh to other towns; V-2 -- arterial roads; V-3 -- Fast vehicular roads; V-4 -- Meandering shopping streets; V-5 -- Sector circulation roads; V-6 Access roads to houses; V-7 -- footpaths and cycle tracks. Buses ply only on V-1, V-2, V-3 and V-4 roads.

There are two national highways, namely, No. 21 (Ambala-Kinnaur) and 22 (Chandigarh-Leh) that serve this union territory by connecting it with other parts of the country. The city is well connected with major cities via train. There are two trains, namely, Shatabdi Express and Himalayan Queen that link Chandigarh with Delhi. The city is well connected with Delhi, Leh and Amritsar via air. The airport is located at a distance of about 12 kms from the city center.